Typhlobarbus nudiventris

Chu et Chen 1982. 

English Name: Blind naked-belly barbel.


Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae.

Environment: Demersal; freshwater.

Climate: Subtropical.

History: On April 23, 1976, a little fish was found 100 meters deep in underground water in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province when the local people were digging to find a new water source. This specimen was 34 mm in total length, with a semitransparent body, so that the outline of its internal organs could be seen faintly. Its left eye was covered completely by tissue, and its right eye was black and as small as a needlepoint. After careful study, the experts elicited a conclusion: this is blindfish; it was not immediately described scientifically because there was only one specimen. In 1978, the news of „The discovery of the first blind fish from China” issued, confirming their existence*.

Description: D II,8; A II,5; P I,15; V II,8.  Body elongated, small and slender, breast and belly flat and gradually compressed rearward; head medium-size. Abdomen rounded. Mouth is inferior and arched; snout rounded and blunt, slightly projected. Gill-membrane broadly joined to isthmus. Gill rakers are triangle-shaped. Lower pharyngeal teeth in two rows. Lips simple and smooth, adnate to maxillar and mandible respectively. Rostral fold covering part of upper lip, not fringed at its edge and not forming a preoral chamber. Rostral groove interrupted at the base of maxillary barbel. Upper lip connected with lower one. Postlabial groove short, only laterally developed and extending to mental groove, which is shallow and inconspicuous.  Mental region pad-like, without free rim front nostril opening with a short tube and separated with rear  nostril opening by a valve; eye sockets located in center of head, slightly caved-in, filled with adipose or with needle-tip small hole and bottom of hole black, eyeball extremely degenerated. Barbels 2 pairs and lenght of barbels equaled; rostral barbels reach posterior nostrils and maxillary ones extend as far as the vertical from orbit, which is filled by fat globules except a small opening showing the position of extremely regressed eye. Scales medium-sized but naked on center of front back and  ventral. No enlarged scales on both sides of anal base. Lateral line complete, normally decurved, running in middle of caudal peduncle; lateral line scales 39-40. The cephalic lateral line appears to be in two series  of pores. Dorsal and anal without osseous spine. Five branched anal rays.  Last unbranched dorsal fin-ray soft and smooth, with distal margin truncate, orgin of dorsal fin opposite to front of origin of pelvic fin; pectoral and pelvic fins expanded flat and located lower; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins large, caudal fin forked and large. Air-bladder with two divisions not enclosed in leathery membrane or bony capusle.  In life color of body semitransparent and faint reddish, grayish dark contents of intestine appeared in center of venter. The branchial region is very reddish due to the blood circulation in that area. Fins transparent but caudal fin grayish and with gray edge. Maximum standard lenght 45,5  mm. Monotypic genera.

Distribution: Asia. The fish is an endemic species of China and is distributed only in the underground karst cave at Yangjieba  (ca. 23°39′ N, 102°46′ E) of Jianshui County, Yunnan Province.

Habitat and ecology: The underground water in the karst cave is about 100 m below the surface at an altitude of 1,450 m above sea level. The water moves slightly and surrounding is dark.

Food and feeding: Outer shells of chitinozoa have been found in faeces suggesting that plankton is at least part of their diet.

Reproduction and development: External, non-guarder.

Other behavior: Institute of  Zoology, Kunming, Chinese Academy of  Science (CAS), obtained two fish ot the species  in 1981. These were observed for several  days after putting them an  earthenware container of water. When still, they often supported  their bodies on the outer edge of pectoral  and pelvic fins with the tip of the lower lobe of the caudal fin and the head raised upward. When swimming, they opened their nostrils, lift the valve of their noses with their snouts extending forward and their bellies against the wall of the container and they again became still after swimming several rounds. They are very sensitive to vibration but show no response to light.

Status: Rare.


*Chu Xin-Luo and Chen Yin-Rui, 1978. The discovery of the first blind Fish from China. Journal of Chinese Nature, 1, (6), p. 343.




2011/01/13 | Ryby

Pristolepis fasciata

Bleeker,1851. Perciformes; Nanidae, Pristolepidinae.
Demersal; patamodromus; freshwater;  pH range 7,0-?; dH range 10-?
Climate tropical; 23° C – 28° C
Description. D XIII-XVI/14-16; A III/8-9; P 15; V I/5; C 14; l.lat.21-24+7-8, l.tr.5/1/11, branchiostegal rays 6, pyloric caeca 2, vertebral formula 13+12=25. Body thick-set very deep compressed. Mouth small, narrow slightly protusible, upper jaw reaching as far as anterior edge of eye. Teeth villiform on jaws and palatines, globular on vomer. Gill membranes broadly united. Gill cover with two flattened spines. Scales ctenoid. Lateral line interrupted under the soft ray dorsal fin and displaced further ventrally. Dorsal spines strong, second anal spine strongest but not so long as third. Tail fin rounded. Colour; in life greenish or brownish-yellow, with a deep black spot on shoulder and anothoner over upper part of pectoral fin base; 8-12 rather regular dark transverse bands, which are especially prominent in the yung. Upper side darker, belly pale, usually yellowish. Pectoral fins yellowish other fins greenish.  Several dark longitiudonal lines beneath the eye, extending from the mouth to the gill-cover. Total lenght 20 cm (male), weight over 0,5 kg.
Distributions. Asia: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.  Reported from the Maeklong River. It prefers areas of aquatic vegetation or submerged tree limbs, and is more common in pernament lakes than  in rivers. Kottelat(1996)  records the species from  the lower and middle Xe Bang Fai. It is occasionally recorded from deep pools during the dry season  in the Mekong mainstream.
Migration/Spawning. This species undertakes short lateral migrations (and not longitudinal  migrations). It moves from  the main river to smaller stream and floodplains of the beginning of the wet season, and returns at the beginning of the dry season. It breeds mainly during the beginning of the wet season.

Habitat/ Biology: Found in sluggish or standing waters, including reservoirs, from Burma to Indonesia. Frequently seen in areas with a lot of aquatic vegetation or submerged tree limbs. Feeds on filamentous algae, submerged land plants, fruits, and seeds with some aquatic insects and crustaceans. They are  sexually mature  in first year  and reach 7-8 cm. Longevity 4,4 years. The  study on some biological aspects of Striped Tiger Nandid  (Pristolepis fasciata) was conducted during May 2003 to April 2004 by sampling fish from Kwan Phayao (Phayao Lake), Phayao Province (Thailand). Total number of 724 fish specimens, was compose of 456 male and 268 female. The average sample sizes of male was 10.21±1.82 cm in total length and 23.59±11.49g of body weight, and the average sample sizes of female was 11.34±2.93cm in total length and 39.39±29.93g of body weight. The sex ratio was 1:0.59. The results showed that body shape of Pristolepis fasciata was compress body, short and deep, yellow with brown or black colour with about 8-12 blackish vertical on the middle body, 1-2 spine on opercular, a small and only slightly protractile mouth. Normally, these species were found in aquatic plant area. In the spawning season, the fish would be built for foam nets  spawning egg. The ratio between intestine length and body length was 1:0.51. In the stomach content was found 60.74% of shrimp, 11.29% insects larvae, 2.41 % of fish and other 25.56 % . The study of spawning season from gonad development indicated that the spawning period of this species started from February to August. The characteristics of egg were spherical, yellow in colour and floating type. The average fecundity was 39,562±33,531 eggs from the average spawner sizes of 14.05±2.16 cm and 71.53±38.01g The relationship between fecundity and weight (R2 =0.9111) was higher related than the relationship between fecundity and total length (R2 = 0.8778). The growth parameters were 0.94 per year of growth constant (K), 21.0cm of the maximum theoretical length, 3.65 per year for total mortality (Z) and 1.76 per year for fishing mortality (F), the level of exploitation rate (E) was 0.48.

Aquarium. Little is known of the behaviour of this species in captivity. Probably the are territorial fishes and liable to be quarrelsome among  themselves. The male usually gathers the eggs places then in the nest and guards them until they reach the free-swimming stage. Live food of all kinds. 






2011/01/03 | Ryby

Haitej sculpin (Mesocottus haitej)

Genus Mesocottus. Gratzianow, 1907.

One very strong sharp spine on the preopercle; three more spines below it. Two very weak longitudinal crests extending behind the eyes on the occiput; a smaller crest on the outer side of each of the above, excending in the pteroic region. A weak crest on the ossicle running across the cheeks to the preopercle. A similar crest on the upper portion of the opercular bone. Head covered above with epithelial tubercles. Jaws and vomer toothed. Branchiostegal membranes grown to the wide isthmus, but the suture (a barely visible plica) can be observed at the place attachment. Postcleithrum present. Close to the Japanese and Chinese Trachidermus, but has no palatine teeth. A single species in the Amur basin.

Mesocottus haitej. Dybowski,1896. Cottidae. Benthopelagic; freshwater.
Synonym, Cottus haitej.

Terra typica; River Onon, Dauria (province), Russia  ca. 51° 42 N, 115° 50 E

Description. D1 VIII IX; D2 12-15; P 16-17, A 10-13; VI 3-4; C  I,10,I. In the lateral line 35 pores. Gill rakers 4-6, in the form they tubercle-like, covered with small spinulets. Pyloric caeca 5. Vertebrae 32-33 . Body spindle-shaped it gets narrow evenly from the head to the tail. The skin is thick, densely covered with bony spines that are not only on the ventral side of the body. Caudal peduncle short. The back and sides are gray, sometimes brownish. The abdomen is brighter, for the first dorsal fin and the base of the tail, there are 3 dark stripes that extend up the sideline (and partly below). Caudal fin rounded. P, D  and C with rows of dark speckles, the pectoral fins fully developed, ending in a vertical first rays D2. The males  have larger pectoral fins  than the female  and  are more  brightly  colored. Pelvic fins rather short, not reaching vent. Dorsal fins meeting or slightly separated . Anal fin shorter than D2, but the same height with him and starts behind the vent. The head is very big and broad, strongly armed, preoperculum 4 well developed spine, upper spine is very sharp, suboperculum with a blunt spine. Mouth large, jaws equal in length and reach the vertical middle of the eye. Dental lamina poorly differentiated, the teeth villiform located in the middle of the jaws, larger than all the rest. Eyes small, interorbital space broad. Anterior nostrils are flattened as short tubules tapering upwards  and the posterior  nostrils are in the form of pores. Nasal spines absent.  Seismosensory  system is represented by narrow canals that open outward with small pores; the sensory canal passing in the preopercle occupies about 14% of its width. On the chin has 2 pores. The lateral canal is complete and in the middle of the trunk. The  maximum age of 5 years, reaches a lenght of 20 cm SL. Subspecies are not.

Distribution. Found in Russia, Mongolia (Onon River), North China (Wudalianchi Lakes) and North Korea (Yalu River). In Russia, lives in the basin of the Amur River from the headwaters (River Shilka, Argun, Onon, Ingoda) to the estuary, there is in the basins of the Ussuri and the Songhua River. Lives in the Amur Liman, Tartary Strait and rivers northern Sakhalin Island ( River Tym’, Teńgi).

Lifestyle. In the main river current, leading a sedentary lifestyle bottom. Lives mainly in the river, holding the pebble, rarely sandy bed. In the food composition comprises the larvae of mayflies, stoneflies, caddis flies and midges, mysids, gammarids and fish (stickleback, minnow and bitterling). In young fish, the length of 50-60 mm are more common chironomids, the larger specimens is dominated by the larvae of mayflies.  At the age of 1+ has a length of 65 mm, 2+ – 115 mm, 3+ – 145-150 mm, and 4+ – 160 mm and weight ca. 85 g . Matures in the third year of life in the length of 10-11 cm. Fertility, defined by one specimen, amounted to 2.822 eggs. Spawning takes place in May-June at water temperatures of 10-16 °C .

Aquarium. This is a typical cold water fish and does  not like temperatures  that exceed 20° C.  There fish are rarely kept in captivity since they need cold, clear water nearly saturated with  oxygen. Their diet is primarily animal matter. Longevity under proper conditions is up 4 years (reaching 10 cm). Water conditions; temperature  1-14° C, pH 6,5; 4-25°dH.






















2010/12/30 | Ryby

Głowacz szczupły (Cottus microstomus)

Heckel, 1837. Rodzina: Głowaczowate Cottidae. Bentopelagiczna, wody słodkie i słonawe.

Opis: D1 IX; D2 19; A 11-14: P 13-15; V I,4. Linia naboczna pełna, 33-36 porów.  Głowacz szczupły odróżnia się od innych europejskich głowaczy węższą głową, mniejszym otworem gębowym i krótszym trzonem ogonowym. Na pysku pomiędzy przednimi i tylnymi otworami nosowymi występuje płytka poprzeczna bruzda, u samców występują zrazikowate brodawki genitalne. Ciało nagie pokryte drobnymi kolcami rozciągającymi się do tyłu do trzonu ogonowego (zredukowane, czasami nie występują wcale – zależnie od występowania geograficznego). Płetwa ogonowa mniej więcej obcięta. Brak poprzecznych pasm na płetwach brzusznych. Długość standardowa 100 mm SL.

Występowanie: klimat umiarkowany. Europa. Zlewnia Morza Czarnego, zlewisko Dniestru, południowe zlewiska Odry i Wisły. Rozprzestrzeniony na wschód do Zatoki Fińskiej. Zmianie systematycznej uległ status  głowacza białopłetwego Cottus gobio, którego areał nie obejmuje obecnie Polski, natomiast jego pozycję zajął Cottus microstomus.


*                                                 *

Sprawozdanie, oraz Materjaly do fizjografji kraju, Tom 12, 1878, s. 57
Akademja Umiejętności w Krakowie.

Ryby zebrane w okolicy Sołotwiny, Stanisławowa i Halicza
Podał Prof. M. Łomnicki

 „Cottus microstomus Heck. (Babka). Koło Stanisławowa w obu Bystrzycach rzadko występuje (Pasieczna, Uhorniki, Opryszowce), częściéj znajduje się w potoku Rybniańskim, a im daléj ku górom, tém jest pospolitsza, zachodząc wraz z pstrągiem w najdalsze przytoki Bystrzycy sołotwińskiéj (Huta, Mezeryki, Doszczyna). Według rybaka sołotwinskiego M. trze się na wiosnę i zawsze pojedyńczo składa ikrę pod kamienie. Zwykle widywałem tę babkę przesiadującą pod wielkiémi głazami. Odznacza się płetwami V. niepręgowanemi i niedosięgającemi otworu odchodkowego, tudzież smuklejszym ogonem i stosunkowo węższą i ostrzejszą głową, czém się łatwo różni od b. pstropłetwéj, jako téż mniejszym wymiarem ciała. Dłułgość rosłych okazów wynosi 9 — 10-ciu cm.”








2010/12/22 | Ryby

Sumik armeński (Glyptothorax armeniacus)

Berg,1918. Rząd Siluriformes . Rodzina Sisoridae. Bentopelagiczna. Słodkowodna.
Opis: D II,6; A II,6-7; P I,8; V I,5 . Głowa krótka (4,3~4,5 w SL). Wąsy: 4 pary, 2 wąsy na górnej szczęce, z szerokimi nasadami  sięgają daleko za oko, nosowe  sięgają do przedniej krawędzi oka. Płetwa tłuszczowa z krótką nasadą mierzy tyle co nasada płetwy odbytowej. Pierwszy promień płetwy piersiowej spłaszczony, od strony wewnętrznej ząbkowany nie dosięga do początku płetwy brzusznej (długość płetwy piersiowej w długości standardowej (SL) mieści się  od 4,3~4,6 razy). Piersiowa przyssawka dłuższa niż jej szerokość, jej boczne gałęzie w postaci fałdek  mają pierzastą strukturę . Pasemko zębów na górnej szczęce prawie proste nieszerokie i niewysokie. Płetwa ogonowa wcięta. Ciało szare bez plam, na płetwach szerokie ciemne poprzeczne pasy. Długość całkowita 13 TL.
Występowanie: klimat umiarkowany. Azja.Turcja, Iran, Armenia, basen górnego biegu rzek; Araksu, Eufratu i Tygrysu.
Cztery okazy, 75-125 mm  długości całkowitej(TL), złowił A.L. Behning 15 sierpnia (2 sierpnia starego stylu) 1916,  «w rzece Mukhlassi darasi, wody górnego Eufratu, poniżej Chat 42 km SE od Erzeroum », jak wskazano na oznakowaniu. Ale na mapie w skali  1:420000  L.S.Berg nie znalazł wymienionej powyżej lokalizacji w górnym biegu Eufratu. Odległość 42 km SE od Erzeroum doprowadziła go do dorzecza górnego Araksu, w pobliżu wioski Chatagh położonej nad rzęką, niedaleko której znajduje się inna wioska o nazwie Mollah Ahmed, a zatem rzeka może nosić nazwę Mollahsi (Mullasi) darasi, to znaczy rzeka Mollah. Nie jest wykluczone że sumik G. armeniacus został złowiony w wodach górnego Araksu.





2010/12/18 | Ryby