Horaglanis alikunhii

Subhash Babu & Nayar, 2004. Siluriformes . Clariidae.

Environment: Demersal; freshwater.

Description: D 24; A 17; P highly vestigal; V 6; C 30. Body elongate, eel-like, head is elongated. Barbels four pairs, eyes completely absent. Gill membranes united at the anterior end near the lower jaw. Dorsal fin long, with 24 rays arising in advance of the origin of pelvic fins; anal fin with 17 rays originating far behind the origin of pelvics; both dorsal and anal fins terminating at base of caudal fin.  Pectoral fins minute, highly vestigial, leaf-like, with rounded margin, supported by short central axis and 9 rays; pelvic fins long, conspicuous, supported by 6 rays, second ray distally branched. Caudal fin large rounded  with  pointed tip, supported by 30 rays, middle 10 rays branched at their ends. Total length 32 mm.

History: On May 15, 2000 was obtained a single specimen at a depth of 8.5 m, while digging a new well in the void laterite soil of Parappukara. The fish was collected live from a narrow crevice on the sidewall of the well through which water was flowing out.

Colouration: The live fish was translucent with visible blood capillaries, so that the fish appeared a beautiful red. The red colour of live fish due to the abundance of erythrocytes in the superficial blood capillaries is probably an adaptation in oxygen-deficient waters in this habitat.

Habitat: Subterranean channel in lateritic rocks.

Distribution: Asia: India, Parappukara (10°23’N, 76°15’E), Trichur district Kerala.




2011/03/09 | Ryby

Schistura sijuensis

Menon, 1987. Cypriniformes. Balitoridae. Nemacheilinae.

Environment: Benthopelagic; freshwater.

Description: D ii 8; A ii 5; P i 11; V i 7. Body fairly stout, its depth 5 to 6.6 times in standard length. Eyes small, not visible from underside of head. Nostrils close to each other; anterior nostrils tubular.  Mouth semicircular; lips fleshy and poorly furrowed, lower lip interrupted in middle. Barbels well-developed. Dorsal fin inserted slightly nearer base of caudal fin than to snout-tip. Caudal fin forked. Scales small and imbricate, more prominent in posterior part of body, absent on ventral surface; lateral line complete. Standard length 51 mm (SL).

Colouration: Pigmentation variable, in alcohol, body marked with eight to ten short light grey (in live brown) bands across back, the bands break up into secondary bands below lateral line;upper surface of head marked with a few spots; a short grey band  at base of caudal fin. Caudal fin with two V-shaped bands.

Distribution: Asia; Siju Cave (ca. 25°25’N, 90°30’E), Garo Hills in Meghalaya, India.

Habitat/Habit: Found only in caves, bottom dweller, omnivorous.

Reproduction: Fertilization external, nonguarders, open water, substratum egg scatterers.













2011/03/06 | Ryby

Uegitglanis zammaranoi

Gianferrari, 1923. Siluriformes. Clariidae.

Environment. Demersal; freshwater.
Climate / Range. Tropical; 10°N – 0°N

Description. D.55; A.42; P.1/8; V.6; C. 18. Branchiostegal rays 9.  Gill rakers on first arch 10. Vertebrae 62. Gill membranes free from isthmus. The body is elongated and scaleless with dorsal and anal fins long reaching almost caudal fin. Head greatly depressed. The height of the body is lying in about 8 times the length (without caudal) and the length of the head 6 1/2 times. Lenght head is about twice its width. Eyes absent, skull roof invisible. The face has a higher cephalic central depression along its entire length. The snout is rounded. There are only occipital fontanel, elliptical, whose length is 2 1/2 times width. Intermaxillary teeth are villiform, the vomero-palatine villiform and granular; the latter are arranged in 2-4 irregular series forming a band with a short median posterior process and the width of it is equivalent to half the width of the band jaw.  Barbels four pairs, nasal barbels included 1 1/2 times the length of the head, and the maxillary barbels are slightly longer than the head; the external mandibular length a 1 1/3 that of the internal mandibular, which measure 2/3 the length of the head. Dorsal fin has 55 rays (all soft) and the distance that separates the head is roughly equal to the length thereof. The anal fin has 42 rays (all soft) and is separated from the tail by a very small space. The length of pectoral fin is higher than half the length of the head. Pectoral spine with a very weak, not serrated. The ventral is separated from the caudal by a distance equal to more than 1 3/4 times that which separates it from the tip of the snout. Caudal fin has 18 rays and measures 4/5 the length of the head. Dermal papillae are observed on the lower lip and on the cephalic lateral sides and top. The blind and cave-dwelling Uegitglanis bears tubular infraorbitals and suprapreopercles (David 1936). The air-bladder is bilobed, transversely placed and partially enclosed in a bony capsule. In Uegitglanis suprabranchial organ it is supposedly absent (macroscopically). The reduced air-breathing abilities in this fish might well be compensated by an increase in vascularisation of the dorsal fin (Tortonese, 1952). Body depigmented. Traces of melanic pigment are visible although eyes are totally regressed, with no vestiges of optical nerves (Ercolini and Berti, 1977; Ercolini et al.,1982). Chardon (1968) considered the (supposed macroscopical) absence of the suprabranchial organ as one of the characters justifying creation of Uegitglanididae for the genus Uegitglanis. U. zammaranoi is the sister group to Heteropneustes and the remaining clariids. The problematic relationship of this species to the rest of the family is due to the lack of a labyrinth organ that characterizes the family. The holotype is a specimen whose total length is 101 mm.

Other specimens; D. 48-55; A. 38-45; P. 1/8; V.6, ± 54 vertebrae and 10 (?) pairs of ribs,  epidermis thickness 40 µm , club cells quite abundant Ø 15 µm.  Size up to 250 mm in total lenght.

>>Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianf.
10 esemplari di Uegìt e 3 di Mabaddèi Uèn (Uebi Scebeli, Benadir). Concordano tutti quasi completamente con la descrizione del tipo fatta dalla Prof. Gianferrari. La loro lunghezza varia da 48 a 105 mm. La D. ha 47- 55 raggi, l’ A. 35-40, la C. 12-16, la P. un raggio semplice (preferisco chiamarlo così anziché spina) e 8 bifidi, la V. 6 raggi. Ho notato che in alcuni esemplari il barbiglio mascellare è lungo solo quanto il capo, mentre in altri giunge ai della P. — Le Le papille cutanee sono più numerose, nel lato dorsale del cupo, di quanto non appaia dal disegno della Gianferrari. Infatti la serie ventrale che partendo dal labbro inferiore, accompagna inferiormente i lati, si incurva poscia e giunge sul lato dorsale con due papille, di cui una molto spostata medialmente, quasi  all’altezza del punto raggiunto dal barbiglio nasale se ripiegato  posteriormente. Presso quest’ ultima papilla ve n’è talora un altra più piccola, appena più anteriore. Sotto la base del barbiglio nasale vi è pure una papilla, la prima di cinque, che formano una serie curva in basso, volta all’ indietro. Una grossa papilla si trova anche subito sopra la base del barbiglio nasale. Infine un po’ prima della metà del capo, nella linea mediana, vi son due piccole papille, che non sono quasi mai del tutto simmetriche.
Hab.: Pozzi di Uegit.<<

Portano denti in Uegitglanis le ossa premascellari, dentali, palatine, ed il vomere. I denti appaiono distribuiti abbastanza regolarmente in due file sul vomere, in quattro sui palatini ; essi costituiscono qui insieme una fascia con un breve processo mediano, larga circa la meta di quella degli intermascellari. La distribuzione dei denti e invece del tutto irregolare su gli intermascellari ed i dentali. Tutti i denti sono conici : molto sottili ed aguzzi gli intermascellari, i dentali ed i palatini, notevolmente piu robusti, leggermente smussati all’ apice i vomerini. Sono tutti sprofondati nella mucosa orale, dalla quale sporgono solo in piccola parte: questo fatto puo facilmente condurre — ad un’ osservazione superficiale,— a considerare come granulari i vomerini dei quali non si scorge che l’apice smussato.
L’altezza di ogni dente varia in media fra 1 – 1 1/3 mm.  Una numerazione esatta dei denti intermascellari e dentali distribuiti del tutto irregolarmente, non mi fu possibile; in individui di diversa lunghezza, ne ho potuti contare in media fra i 380 ed i 410. In un esemplare lungo 87 mm. contai circa 410 denti, e precisamente : 180 dentali. 190 intermascellari, 40 vomero palatini.

Reproduction: In captivity has never been observed, in the wild reproduction is presumed to occur between January and March, a period characterized by a dry, hot climate; females with developed ovaries were collected only in March, from the well of Manas.

Distribution. Uegitglanis zammaranoi is found only in the artesian wells of the former Italian Somaliland. It is restricted to caves near the Uegit and the Uebi Scebeli Rivers in Somalia.

Aquarium. Water conditions: temperature 28°C, Uegit – pH 8, total hardness 40°dH, Iscia-Baidoa – pH 7,5, total hardness: 29,9°dH . Their food consisted of fresh Tubifex and crustaeans. Kept in labolatory for about 10 years in very good conditions.

















2011/02/28 | Ryby

Szczupak amurski (Esox reichertii)

Dybowski,1869.  Rodzina; Szczupakowate Esocidae. Słodkowodna.
Terra typica; Onon, Ingoda.

Opis: D VI-VII/ 11-15;  A IV-V/ 11-14;  V II/ 9-8; P I/ 13; C I/17/I; squ. 130 -165 (zazwyczaj 145);  l.lat 48-65. l.tr 19/23, promieni skrzelowych 11 – 15 z jednej strony,  podzielona ilość zazwyczaj  5/8 albo 6/7, kręgów  63 – 67.  Stosunek długości głowy  do  długości standardowej  u E. lucius i E. reichertii (odpowiednio 0,30~0,35 i 0,26~0,35).  Łusek przebitych przez kanaliki linii bocznej zazwyczaj 48-65. Kości ciemieniowe są oddzielone od kości nadpotylicznej ( u E. lucius stykają się). Policzki, górna część operculum i cała górna część głowy są pokryte łuskami, które są mniejsze niż u  szczupaka pospolitego. W porównaniu ze pospolitym  szczupak amurski ma jaśniejsze zielonkawo-szare ubarwienie,  boki lśniące   złotym (w jeziorach), lub srebrnym (w rzekach) odcieniem,  z ciemnymi plamami, które występują także na żółtych lub czerwonawych płetwach srebrzyste boki z ciemnymi plamkami, które można uznać za przystosowanie do życia w rzece, a nie w zarośniętej strefie przybrzeżnej, co jest typowe dla pospolitego  szczupaka. Ubarwienie to wiąże się z przystosowaniem do życia w otwartych wodach. Młode szczupaki amurskie mają podobne ubarwienie do  szczupaków pospolitych. Dorosłe osobniki barwą przypominają łososia. Maksymalne wymiary; osiąga długość 110 cm, wagę 16 kg i wiek 14 lat, ale w połowach jego średnia długość jest równa 50-60 cm, a waga – 1,0-1,5 kg, średnia wieku – 3-5 lat. Samice są większe niż samce w pierwszych latach życia.

Biologia: Narybek szczupaka amurskiego żyje w zarośniętych przybrzeżnych strefach  rzek i jezior, ryby starsze – na otwartej przestrzeni jezior i nurtach rzek. Dojrzałość płciową samce osiągają przy 40 cm długości  w wieku 2 +, a samice – 3 +. Termin tarła od kwietnia do czerwca, waha się w różnych zbiornikach wodnych  w zależności od temperatury, zazwyczaj tarło następuje bezpośrednio po roztopieniu lodów i zalaniu przybrzeżnej roślinności  przy temperaturze 3-6 °C. Tarło odbywa się zazwyczaj w płytkiej wodzie o głębokości  0,5-1,0 m.  Okres  trwania tarła  do 1 tygodnia. W czasie tarła jednej dużej samicy towarzyszy z reguły kilka mniejszych od niej samców.    Płodność waha się od 26 do 151 tysięcy , średnio 38 000 jaj. Ikra lekko lepka, do 2,5-3,0 mm średnicy, przykleja się do podwodnych roślin. Gdy temperatura wody wynosi 12-14°C inkubacja trwa około 10 dni. Larwy mają na głowie gruczoły, wytwarzające kleistą nić, za pomocą której przytwierdzają się do roślin. Wyklute larwy o długości około 8 mm mają duży woreczek żółtkowy z dobrze rozwiniętym układem krążenia, który zabezpiecza ich rozwój w niekorzystnych warunkach tlenowych i niedostatku pokarmu. Narybek zaczyna samodzielnie pływać i żywić po 16-17 dniach. Świeżo wylęgły narybek żywi się zooplanktonem, ale już po osiągnięciu 5 cm długości żywi się narybkiem innych ryb (głównie karpiowatych). Dorosłe osobniki w podrzędnych, rozlewiskowych zbiornikach  wodnych żywią się głównie karasiem srebrzystym (Carassius gibelio), a latem w nurcie jaziem amurskim (Leuciscus waleckii) i czarnobrzuszką amurską (Xenocypris macrolepis),  jesienią, stynką małoustą (Hypomesus olidus), ostrobrzuszkami (Hemiculter sp.) i kiełbiami. W niekorzystnych warunkach, podczas braku dostatecznej ilości narybku innych gatunków ryb, szczupaki rosną z niejednakową szybkością. Różnice w wielkości osobników w tym samym wieku są znaczne. Mniejsze osobniki staja się w związku z tym łatwą zdobyczą dla większych. Kanibalizm występuje więc u szczupaków często. Ofiara szczupaka może mierzyć nawet 75% jego długości i 50% jego wagi. Narybek rośnie szybko, osiągając na początku czerwca  długość 5 cm, w lipcu – 14-11 cm, w wieku 1 roku – 20-24 cm, 2 lata – 32-36 cm, a 3 lat – 41-45 cm.

Rozprzestrzenienie: W całym dorzeczu Amuru, począwszy od górnego biegu (z wyjątkiem obszarów górskich) do Limana Amurskiego. W górnym biegu rzeki w Arguń, Szyłka, Ingoda, Onon, Kerulen, Chałchyn goł i jeziorach Kenon i Bujr nuur , w dolnym biegu – w dopływach Ussuri (z jeziorem Chanka) i rzeki Sungari, jak również w rzekach zlewiska Morza Ochockiego; Uda, Tugur, Amguń i zlewisku Morza Japońskiego w rzece Sajfun. Występuje w rzekach na Sachalinie Poronaj i Tym’, zaaklimatyzowany  w południowej części Sachalinu.


http://archive.org/stream/zapiskiimperator24stpt#page/188/mode/2up esox


























2011/02/14 | Ryby

Silurus soldatovi

Nikolskii & Soin, 1948.

Classification: Order: Siluriformes; Family; Siluridae

English Name:
Northern sheatfish, Soldatov’s catfish.

Environment: Demersal; non-migratory; freshwater.

Climate / Range: Temperate; 5°C-25°C ; 54°N-44°N, 126°E-141°E

Description: D 6; A 83-90, average 86.2; V 11-14, average 12.4;  P 12-13;  gill rakers 13- 16, average 14.9. In adults, length of the anterior mandibular barbels 5-8%, average 6.1%, of body length (without C); length of the posterior mandibular barbels 2-4%, average 3%. Height of D 7-11%, average 8.5%, of body length. Standard length less than 4 times head length. Body elongate, caudal part compressed, head large and depressed; snout blunt and rounded; eyes small and situated in upper-sides of head; mouth large, upper jaw shorter than lower one and reaching backward over hind margin of eyes; maxillary barbels 1 pair and reaching pectoral fin, numerous papillae at tip of maxillary barbel; chin barbels 2 pairs and anterior one larger than posterior one; skin naked. Dorsal fin rays 6, longer than that of pelvic fin and without spine; adipose fin absent; anal fin rays 83 — 90 and somewhat connected with caudal fin; pectoral fin situated in lower-sides, first pectoral ray feeble, reaching pelvic fin; pelvic fin opposite behind the base of dorsal fin, reaching anal fin, caudal  fin truncate. Mouth larger than in the European catfish, head heavier (larger), vomer stronger (vomerine tooth band wider medially than laterally), it has smaller eyes, as well as  shorter lower jaw barbels. Body color lightly yellowish gray on back and sides, rather pale on abdomen, lighter than in Silurus asotus.  Amur River  at Elabuga village  90 km downstream from Khabarovsk. Sungari from Harbin to the mouth (lenght up to 2 m, weight up to 40 kg).  Report of the Limnobiological Survey of Kwantung and Manchoukuo, 1940, pp. 26, 70, Figure 85 (Sungari at Harbin; length up to 4 m) (in Japanese). Close to S. glanis (a good example of the interrupted amphiboreal distribution).

Distribution: In Asia; Amur and found in the lower reaches  Liao He drainages  (North Korea). In Russia, this species inhabits the  Amur River: from about Blagoveshchensk downriver to Sungari (or Songhua), Ussuri, Khanka Lake and Amurskiy Liman. In China   mainly distributed in the Heilongjiang River (Amur in Russian) below Aihun (Heihe River) down to Boli, Songhuajiang River (Songhua in Russian), Nunjiang River and Wusulijiang River (Ussuri in Russian). They are also found in  in Buyr Lake (Mongolia).

Biology: This is a phytophilic species, which prefer living in the bottom. Like to live in the main streams and tributaries and does not like to go to areas of lakes and zones of flood. Unlike Amur catfish, this species spends most of its life in the main channel of the Amur and goes to the floodplain only for spawning. Females mature at the age of 4-6 years and length 90-100 cm, males mature at the age of 4-5 years and length 85-90 cm, weight 6-7 kg. They lay eggs on water plants. Fecundity is 87-350 thousand eggs. They are carnivorous and live on other fishes and other aquatic animals. This is an active predator feeding on large prey. The prey of one year old Soldatov catfish  may constitute 25-43 % of predator length, for adults usually 15-35 %. Sometimes they swallow waterfowl. They grow quickly and their body length can reach 559 — 583 mm in 2 years plus and 675 — 685 mm in 3 years. Males of S. soldatovi are larger than the females and reach 20-40 kg in weight.  Life span is 18-20 years. It grows very fast and may reach 4 meters length (larger than Silurus asotus). According to A.N. Voronets, he personally measured a catfish weighing over 260 kg.

Catch and Abundance: As for many other Amur fish, exact abundance is unknown. In commercial fishing statistics it was recorded together with Amur catfish. We estimate it to be five times less abundant than Amur catfish. In 1960s-1970s catches of Soldatov catfish in Amur were one ton per year, and three to four tons in Khanka Lake. In the Lower Amur, this species is most abundant from the mouth of Songhua (or Sungari)  to Bolon Lake. It is quite rare elsewhere in the Lower Amur and Khanka. In 1970s-1980s this species was “steadily decreasing”.  Because of that, it was liste in the Red Book. Today, the species has recovered, and fishermen generally encounter as much Soldatov catfish  as a smaller-sized Amur catfish in Amur harvests.













2011/01/28 | Ryby